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2 Interesting Facts about Period 4 Elements

2 Interesting Facts about Period 4 Elements

Riddhi Bhattacharya

Welcome to part 3 in the Chemical Element Facts Series! Discover interesting facts about period 4 chemical elements in the periodic table and embark on a chemical journey!

19. Facts – Potassium

Potassium
  • Pure potassium usually is stored under oil or kerosene because it oxidizes so readily in air and reacts in water to evolve hydrogen, which may be ignited from the heat of the reaction.
  • Potassium compounds emit a lilac or violet flame color when burned. It burns in water, just like sodium. The difference is that sodium burns with a yellow flame and is more likely to shatter and explode! When potassium burns in water, the reaction releases hydrogen gas. The heat of the reaction can ignite the hydrogen.

20. Facts – Calcium

Calcium
  • Dairy products and grains are the primary sources of dietary calcium, accounting or about three-quarters of dietary intake. Other sources of calcium include protein-rich foods, vegetables, and fruits.
  • The element name “calcium” comes from the Latin word “calcis” or “calx” meaning “lime”. In addition to the occurrence in lime (calcium carbonate), calcium is found in the minerals gypsum (calcium sulfate) and fluorite (calcium fluoride).

21. Facts – Scandium

Scandium
  •  Scandium is mainly mined in China, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Norway and Russia with a good deal coming from Cold War-era stockpiles in the former Soviet Union.
  • The total amount of scandium produced in the United States is regarded as a “trade secret in the industry” and is not announced.

22. Facts – Titanium

Titanium
  • Almost every igneous rock — rocks formed from the solidification of molten rock — contains titanium, according to the RSC.
  • Titanium is orbiting the planet right now: The International Space Station (ISS) has a number of titanium parts, including pipes, according to NASA. The Rosetta Project, a research and archiving venture with the goal of preserving human languages and thought, has also flown an etched piece of pure titanium outside the ISS, to see how it stands up to radiation and the harsh environment of space.

23. Facts -Vanadium

Vanadium
  • Inhaling large amounts of vanadium can result in lung problems, such as bronchitis or pneumonia. It has been shown that workers exposed to vanadium peroxide are more susceptible to eye, nose and throat irritation.
  • In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use.

24. Facts – Chromium

Chromium
  • It’s a little-known fact that stainless steel contains chromium. Also known as inox steel, stainless steel is made by smelting and mixing a combination of raw iron, chromium and carbon. 
  • Aside from its anti-rusting properties, chromium is exceptionally hard. In fact, it’s the world’s hardest metal based on the Moh’s Hardness Scale, with a rating of 9.0. It’s is harder than iron, stainless steel, tungsten and even titanium. With that said, chromium is still brittle, meaning it can break or shatter easily.

25. Facts – Manganese

Manganese
  • Manganese is essential to metabolic functions, according to Chemicool. Human bodies contain approximately 10 to 20 milligrams, and because it can’t be stored, humans need to constantly replenish the supply through diet.
  • Too much manganese, however, can be toxic. According to Lenntech, symptoms can include hallucinations, forgetfulness, nerve damage, dullness, weak muscles, headaches, and insomnia. It can also cause Parkinson’s disease, lung embolisms, bronchitis, impotence in men, and schizophrenia.

26. Facts – Iron

Iron
  • There are four allotropes of iron known as ‘ferrites’. These are designated α-, β-, γ-, and δ- with transition points at 770, 928, and 1530 °C. The α- and β- ferrites have the same crystal structure, but when the α- form becomes the β- form, the magnetism disappears.
  • Iron is an essential mineral for health, but too much iron is extremely toxic. Free iron in the blood reacts with peroxides to form free radicals that damage DNA, protein, lipids and other cellular components, leading to illness and sometimes death. 20 milligrams of iron per kilogram of body weight is toxic, while 60 milligrams per kilogram is lethal.

27. Facts – Cobalt

Cobalt
  • Centuries ago, miners in the mountains of Germany had a great deal of trouble trying to melt down certain ores for useful metals like silver and copper, and even dealt with poisonous fumes released from the rock, which could make them very sick or even kill them. Centuries ago, miners in the mountains of Germany had a great deal of trouble trying to melt down certain ores for useful metals like silver and copper, and even dealt with poisonous fumes released from the rock, which could make them very sick or even kill them. 
  • People have been using cobalt-containing pigments to get that rich blue hue as far back as the 3rd millennium BCE, when Persians used them to color their necklace beads.

28. Facts – Nickel

Nickel
  • Many meteorites consist of a nickel-iron alloy. People in Ancient Egypt considered these nickel-rich meteorites so significant that they shaped them into objects of beauty. 
  • The explosion of Supernova 2007bi created a mass of nickel three times greater than our sun, which caused the expanding gases to glow very brightly for months.

29. Facts – Copper

Copper
  • New York’s Statue of Liberty is made of more than 80 tonnes of copper from Norway’s Visnes Copper Mines. Made by French artisans, it withstood the long journey from France to America and resisted the salty sea air. The Lady’s natural, green patina has protected her from corrosion since 1886.
  • The Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was built in the third century BC using bronze reclaimed from confiscated war implements. The Colossus was destroyed by an earthquake around 50 years later and the bronze was gathered up and sold as scrap. These events are early examples of copper recycling!

30. Facts – Zinc

Zinc
  • Although zinc was used by the ancient Greeks and Romans, it was not as common as iron or copper, probably because the element boils away prior to reaching the temperature required to extract it from ore. 
  • Although galvanization is used to protect metals against corrosion, zinc actually does tarnish in air. The product is a layer of zinc carbonate, which inhibits further degradation, thus protecting the metal beneath it.

31. Facts – Gallium

Gallium
  • e Neutrino Observatory in Italy uses large amounts of gallium trichloride to study solar neutrinos produced in the sun. Neutrinos are particles created in the first second of the universe — even before atoms — and are continually being made through nuclear reactions of the sun and other stars, according to the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Approximately 95 percent of gallium consumption is in the electronics industry, according to LibreTexts. Gallium arsenide and gallium nitride represent about 98% of gallium consumption in the United States.

32. Facts – Germanium

Germanium
  • Germanium is one of the few elements that expand when it freezes, like water does, according to Chemicool. Others include gallium, silicon, bismuth and antimony.
  • Germanium’s value was recognized during World War II, according to Emily Darby, a chemistry student at Harvey Mudd College, when it was used in high-resolution radar receivers. The first germanium transistor was invented shortly afterward.

33. Facts – Arsenic

Arsenic
  • The element name comes from the ancient Persian word Zarnikh, which means “yellow orpiment.” Orpiment is arsenic trisulfide, a mineral that resembles gold. The Greek word “arsenikos” means “potent.”
  • Arsenic has long been used as a poison, but it’s readily detected. Past exposure to arsenic may be assessed by examining hair. Urine or blood tests can assay recent exposure.

34. Facts – Selenium

Selenium
  • Brazil nuts are high in selenium, even if they are grown in soil that is not rich in the element. A single nut provides enough selenium to meet the daily requirement for a human adult.
  • There are six natural isotopes of selenium. One is radioactive, while the other five are stable. However, the half-life of the unstable isotope is so long that it is essentially stable. Another 23 unstable isotopes have been produced.

35. Facts – Bromine

Bromine
  • Bromine is hazardous, according to Lenntech. It is corrosive to human tissue in its liquid state, and it irritates eyes and the throat and is highly toxic when inhaled in a vapor state. Bromine damages many major organs, including the liver, kidneys, lungs, and stomach, and, in some cases, can cause cancer.
  • Due to toxicity and environmental concerns, the use of bromine as fire retardants and in agriculture is being or has been phased out, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry.

36. Facts – Krypton

Krypton Facts
  • When exposed to an electrical current under low pressure, krypton gas lights up like neon — but instead of red-orange, krypton glows smoky white, according to the Jefferson Lab.
  • OK, let’s talk Superman. The superhero’s home world was first referenced in 1938. At first, the Superman comics referenced all residents of the destroyed planet of Krypton as possessing super strength; by the 1950s, however, the story shifted. Superman would have been an average Joe on Krypton, but Earth’s lighter gravity and yellow sun gave him his superpowers.

Other Articles in this Series:

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

See Also

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

In a 1996 study published in the medical journal Metabolism, eight people with type 2 diabetes were given vanadium supplements for one month. It appeared moderately successful in lowering blood sugar levels with few side effects. During the first week, six of the eight participants experienced some gastrointestinal problems, but these side effects disappeared with continued use. Facts

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